The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees are the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Chief of Staff to the President, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the military advisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. Counsel to the President and the Legal Advisor to the NSC are invited to attend every NSC meeting. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, as well as other senior officials, including the COVID-19 Response Coordinator and the Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate to address the cross-cutting nature of many critical national security issues, such as homeland security, global public health, international economics, climate, science and technology, cybersecurity, migration, and others.
Section 1. Purpose. This memorandum directs action to strengthen protections of United States Government-supported Research and Development (R&D) against foreign government interference and exploitation. The United States Government provides significant support to R&D across a broad spectrum of research institutions and programs conducted both within and outside of the United States and its territories. This R&D, including both basic and applied research, is a key contributor to American science and technology (S&T) innovation and is essential to United States economic and national security.
(ii) cooperate with organizations receiving Federal funds to ensure that the organizations have established and administer policies and processes to identify and manage risks to research security and integrity, including potential conflicts of interest and commitment;
(iii) identify, in cooperation with agency Inspectors General and law enforcement agencies as appropriate and as consistent with applicable law, disclosures that have the potential negatively to impact research funding, security, or integrity;
(v) ensure the availability and application of appropriate and effective consequences for violations of disclosure policies and for engagement in other activities that threaten the security and integrity of the United States R&D enterprise.
(d) The Secretary of Homeland Security is responsible for ensuring that DHS, in conjunction with the Department of State, screens foreign individuals who are nonimmigrant students and exchange visitors seeking to participate or participating in the United States R&D enterprise for national security risks. The Secretary of Homeland Security is also responsible, consistent with applicable law, for ensuring that DHS maintains information regarding foreign students and researchers to protect national security while supporting lawful entry and stay of foreign individuals coming to the United States for educational and cultural exchange programs.
(g) The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) shall coordinate Intelligence Community efforts to identify and assess the capabilities, activities, and intentions of foreign actors as they relate to the security of the United States R&D enterprise.
(i) Consistent with applicable law, the Director of OSTP, in coordination with the DNI and heads of other agencies as appropriate, shall engage with the United States R&D enterprise to enhance awareness of risks to research security and integrity and policies and measures for mitigating these risks. This outreach will seek to:
(ii) The DNI shall develop, in coordination with the heads of other agencies, information and intelligence products related to research security that are suitable for dissemination, in accordance with applicable law, to other agencies; to Federal, State, local, and tribal officials; to research institutions; the private sector; and to allies and partners. Where appropriate, the DNI should consider declassifying or reducing the level of classification of relevant information to ensure that decision makers in and out of government have the details they need to understand research security threats and to develop targeted risk mitigation strategies and policies. These materials will seek to:
(iii) Within 12 months of the date of this memorandum, and consistent with applicable law, the heads of United States research funding agencies shall establish policies requiring disclosure of the information reflected in the table below. Depending on their particular circumstances, agencies may also require disclosure of additional information, and/or disclosure from a broader range of R&D enterprise participants, either as a matter of course or upon agency request. Disclosures and disclosure requirements may be modified or excluded when so authorized by agencies for national security purposes.
(vii) The Secretary of Education shall continue to support the balance between academic freedom and national security by promoting financial transparency in the relationship between institutions of higher education (IHEs) and foreign sources through enforcement of section 117 of the Higher Education Act. ED shall continue to ensure that it provides, and updates as necessary, clear public guidance to IHEs on compliance with section 117 requirements, and shall continue to ensure that disclosed information is made publicly available in a format that is readily accessible and usable.
(viii) Agencies shall, as appropriate, work with their Inspector General, General Counsel, law enforcement, university program offices and security officers, and the private sector to strengthen mechanisms and capabilities to identify and investigate potential violations of agency disclosure requirements. Where appropriate, funding agencies or their Inspectors General shall cooperate and assist with administrative and law enforcement investigations and analyses aimed at uncovering violations, including sharing information from disclosure statements, to the extent that such sharing is consistent with privacy laws and other legal restrictions and does not interfere with law enforcement activities.
(ix) Agencies shall ensure appropriate and effective consequences for violation of disclosure requirements and engagement in other activities that threaten research security and integrity. Depending on the nature of the violation, agencies may consider a range of consequences including but not limited to the following:
(ii) Within 12 months of the date of this memorandum, and consistent with applicable law, heads of agencies shall establish policies, or clarify existing policies where applicable, that prohibit Federal personnel currently employed by their respective agencies who are also participants in the United States R&D enterprise from participating in foreign government-sponsored talent recruitment programs. Agency heads may consider agency-specific policies that would extend this prohibition to some or all agency contractor personnel to further protect research security and integrity. Agency heads may provide exemptions from this prohibition where they determine appropriate, and shall notify the President through the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA) within 30 days of any establishment of or change in exemption criteria. For any personnel exempted from these prohibitions, disclosure requirements described in section 4(b) of this memorandum shall still apply.
(e) Information Sharing. To strengthen the effectiveness of response measures, heads of agencies shall share information about violators (e.g., those who violate disclosure or other policies promulgated pursuant to this memorandum, participate in foreign government-sponsored talent recruitment programs contrary to policies issued pursuant to section 4(c)(ii), or whose activities clearly demonstrate an intent to threaten research security and integrity) across Federal funding institutions and with Federal law enforcement agencies, the DHS, and State, to the extent that such sharing is consistent with privacy laws and other legal restrictions, and does not interfere with law enforcement or intelligence activities. Where appropriate and consistent with due process, privacy considerations, and all other applicable law, heads of agencies should consider providing notice to other Federal funding institutions in cases where significant concerns have arisen but a final determination has not yet been made. Where appropriate and consistent with applicable law and appropriations, funding agencies shall include within grant terms and conditions provisions that allow for such information sharing.
(g) Risk Identification and Analysis. Within 12 months of the date of this memorandum, heads of funding agencies shall require that research institutions receiving Federal science and engineering support in excess of 50 million dollars per year certify to the funding agency that the institution has established and operates a research security program. Institutional research security programs should include elements of cyber security, foreign travel security, insider threat awareness and identification, and, as appropriate, export control training. Heads of funding agencies shall consider whether additional research security program requirements are appropriate for institutions receiving Federal funding for R&D in critical and emerging technology areas with implications for United States national and economic security.
(h) Promote and Protect International R&D Cooperation. The Secretary of State, in coordination with the Director of OSTP and the heads of other agencies, shall engage with foreign allies and partners with the goal of promoting policies and practices that increase awareness of risks to research security and improve cooperation on international protection and response 59ce067264